Wednesday, August 10, 2016

Simulate all the planets

So I was searching for a better simulation framework for my Solar System orrery project, and somebody pointed me to three.js, a WebGL 3D-Library. It looked promising. Now it would be nice to do that with all the planets, and somebody already thought the same. Even better. Of course, while a nice simulation, the models left a little bit to be desired in terms of accuracy, so I tried upon myself to improve that. Well, see the result below for yourself. Click/tap on the buttons at left to select a model, holding down a mouse button will stop the rotation.

The bodies rotate with the same relative speed as their natural brethren, although a wee bit faster in absolute terms. The tilt agains the ecliptic is also equvalent

See some more examples here, all the planets dancing in a circle, Earth and Moon doing their thing. Check out the documentation or fork/download the threex.planets source in the GitHub repository. It also includes all the credits for the image sources.

Saturday, July 30, 2016

Solar System Missions Update 08/2016

Here's my map of all active and future Solar System Missions as of August 1st 2016.

We'll see plenty of action in the second half of this year: Juno at Jupiter will see its first perijove in August, and begin the science mission in November. Meanwhile, in September OSIRIS REx will launch and Rosetta will end its mission with a comet touchdown, and in October ExoMars will reach Mars and Schiaparelli will land on it. Finally, Cassini will begin its orbits through Saturn's ring plane in November as the beginning of its grand finale.

Tuesday, July 19, 2016

A Different Kind of Messier Marathon

The D3-Celstial interactive skymap now has a complete set of animated transitions, with zoom, rotation and projection change all going smoothly, as well as a way to automatize them (see documentation at the GitHub repository. To celebrate, here I present the Great Messier Show, showing all 110 Messier objects in order. Or select the ones you want to see with the select-box below. This automatically stops the animation after the current move finishes, so you may have to wait a bit. Stopping/starting can also be done manually with the button on the left. Finally, the checkbox "show object names" is pretty self-explanatory, I think.

Data for each object: Messier designation, NGC designation (if any), proper name (if any), object type, classification - For globular clusters: Shapley–Sawyer classification, open clusters: Trumpler classification, planetary nebulae: Vorontsov-Velyaminov classification, galaxies: Galaxy morphology classification and activity class. Finally apparent visual magnitude and apparent dimensions in arcminutes.

Image sources:
NASA/ESA/STScI (M1, 2, 5, 9, 10, 12, 15, 22, 32, 46, 51, 53, 55, 56, 57, 60, 68, 69, 70, 71, 75, 79, 80, 81, 84, 85, 86, 89, 94, 102, 106, 110) Public Domain
2MASS (M3, 14, 19, 28, 30, 34, 36, 40, 41, 44, 49, 73, 105, 108, 109) Public Domain
ESO (M4, 7, 8, 11, 16, 17, 20, 27, 33, 42, 43, 47, 62, 77, 78, 82, 83, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 107) CC BY 4.0
DSS2/AAO/ROE (M6, 18, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 35, 38, 39, 45, 48, 50, 52, 59, 67, 93, 103) Public Domain
Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona (M13, 29, 37, 58, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 74, 76, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 99, 104) CC BY 3.0
Adam Evans (M31) CC BY 2.0
Astrofotografía (M98) CC BY-SA 2.5

Check out the documentation or fork/download the D3-Celestial source in the GitHub repository.

Sunday, July 3, 2016

Solar System Exploration: All About Jupiter

The interactive Solar System Exploration History timeline is now at version 1.4.1, with mostly data updates. Meanwhile, for obvious reasons, here is all the data about the Jupiter system from the app on one page. First an overview of the whole system on a logarithmic scale with all moons, groups of moons and rings ordered by mean distance and inclination, as well as every spacecraft flyby or orbit insertion so far, marked at the point of closest approach or OI-periapsis for orbiters. The location for Juno is approximate. Below is a table of statistics for all Jupiter missions so far. See further down for all the data about Jupiter's moons and rings

♃ Jupiter
Discovery (Prehistoric)
Rot. Period 9.925 h
Mass 1.896×1027 kg
Temp. ~165 K
Irradiance 50.5 W/m3
Period 11.863 a
Axial Tilt 3.12°
Dens. 1.327 g/cm3
Grav. 2.530 g
Albedo 0.52
Orbit 5.203 AU × 0.0484 × 1.304°
Diameter 142,984 km/0.06487
Composition H + He + Rock; Core: 17%
Atmosphere H2: 89.8% + He: 10.2% (>>1000 bar)
Mag. Field 4.28 Gauss; Tilt:9.6°
Mission stats
Success (Partial)Failure (Launch)OngoingPlannedAll
Flyby7 (0)0 (0)007
Orbiter1 (0)0 (0)124
Descent Probe1 (0)0 (0)001
Ganymede Orbiter0 (0)0 (0)011
All*8 (0)0 (0)1211

Jupiter Moons

Name
Orbit (a×e×i)
Period
Diameter
XVI Metis 128,000 km × 0.0012 × 0.019° 0.295 d 60 × 40 × 34 km
Mass 1.196×10 17 kg
Temp. ~124 K
Rot. Period Sync.
Axial Tilt
Albedo 0.06
Discovery Voyager, 1980
Group Inner
XV Adrastea 129,000 km × 0.0018 × 0.054° 0.298 d 20 × 16 × 14 km
Mass 7.394×10 15 kg
Temp. ~124 K
Rot. Period Sync.
Axial Tilt
Albedo 0.1:
Discovery Voyager, 1979
Group Inner
V Amalthea 181,400 km × 0.0032 × 0.380° 0.4982 d 250 × 146 × 128 km
Mass 2.086×10 18 kg
Grav. 0.002 g
Temp. ?..120..165 K
Dens. 0.857 g/cm 3
Rot. Period Sync.
Axial Tilt
Albedo 0.09
Discovery E.E. Barnard, 1892
Group Inner
XIV Thebe 221,900 km × 0.0176 × 1.080° 0.575 d 116 × 98 × 84 km
Mass 1.496×10 18 kg
Grav. 0.004 g
Temp. ~124 K
Dens. 0.86 g/cm 3
Rot. Period Sync.
Axial Tilt
Albedo 0.05
Discovery Voyager, 1980
Group Inner
I Io 421,800 km × 0.0041 × 0.036° 1.7691 d 3660 × 3638 × 3632 km
Mass 8.919×10 22 kg
Grav. 0.183 g
Temp. 90..110..130 K
Dens. 3.53 g/cm 3
Rot. Period Sync.
Axial Tilt
Albedo 0.62
Discovery G. Galilei, 1610
Group Galilean
Composition Rock + Metal; Core: 45%
Atmosphere SO2: 90% + SO + NaCl (0.3..3×10 -9 bar)
II Europa 671,100 km × 0.0094 × 0.466° 3.5512 d 2126 × 3120 × 3118 km
Mass 4.793×10 22 kg
Grav. 0.134 g
Temp. 50..102..125 K
Dens. 3.01 g/cm 3
Rot. Period Sync.
Axial Tilt 0.016°
Albedo 0.68
Discovery G. Galilei, 1610
Group Galilean
Composition Ice + Rock + Metal; Core: 36%
Atmosphere O2: ~99% (1×10 -12 bar)
III Ganymede 1,070,400 km × 0.0013 × 0.177° 7.1546 d 5,264.4 km/0
Mass 1.48×10 23 kg
Grav. 0.146 g
Temp. 70..110..152 K
Dens. 1.94 g/cm 3
Rot. Period Sync.
Axial Tilt 0.068°
Albedo 0.44
Discovery G. Galilei, 1610
Group Galilean
Composition Ice + Rock + Metal; Core: 28%
Atmosphere O2: ~99% (1×10 -11 bar)
Mag. Field 7.19×10 -3 Gauss; Tilt:176°
IV Callisto 1,882,700 km × 0.0074 × 0.192° 16.6890 d 4,818.6 km/0
Mass 1.074×10 23 kg
Grav. 0.126 g
Temp. 80..134..165 K
Dens. 1.83 g/cm 3
Rot. Period Sync.
Axial Tilt 0.356°
Albedo 0.19
Discovery G. Galilei, 1610
Group Galilean
Composition Ice + Rock + Metal
Atmosphere O2: 98% + CO2: 2% (2.6×10 -11 bar)
XVIII Themisto 7,507,000 km × 0.2424 × 43.068° 130.02 d 4 km:
Alt. Name S/2000 J1
Temp. ~124 K
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery C.T. Kowal et al., 1975
Group Themisto (P)
XIII Leda 11,165,000 km × 0.1636 × 27.457° 240.92 d 10 km:
Mass 1.092×10 16 kg
Temp. ~124 K
Axial Tilt 2.788°
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery C.T. Kowal, 1974
Group Himalia (P)
VI Himalia 11,461,000 km × 0.1623 × 27.496° 250.56 d 170 km
Mass 4.171×10 18 kg
Grav. 0.006 g
Temp. ~124 K
Dens. 1.63 g/cm 3
Rot. Period 7.782 h
Axial Tilt 4.269°
Albedo 0.03
Discovery C.D. Perrine, 1904
Group Himalia (P)
X Lysithea 11,717,000 km × 0.1124 × 28.302° 259.20 d 24 km:
Mass 6.276×10 16 kg
Temp. ~124 K
Rot. Period 0.533 d
Axial Tilt 2.953°
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.B. Nicholson, 1938
Group Himalia (P)
VII Elara 11,741,000 km × 0.2174 × 26.627° 259.64 d 80 km
Mass 8.684×10 17 kg
Temp. ~124 K
Axial Tilt 4.282°
Albedo 0.03
Discovery C.D. Perrine, 1905
Group Himalia (P)
S/2000 J11 12,200,000 km × 0.210 × 28.2° 274.4 d 4 km:
Discovery S.S. Shepard et al., 2000
Group Himalia (P)
XLVI Carpo 17,078,000 km × 0.4436 × 51.157° 456.25 d 3 km:
Alt. Name S/2003 J20
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard, 2003
Group Carpo (P)
S/2003 J12 17,835,000 km × 0.4884 × 150.827° -489.66 d 2 km:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2003
XXXIV Euporie 19,339,000 km × 0.1440 × 145.499° -550.69 d 2 km:
Alt. Name S/2001 J10
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2001
Group Ananke (R)
S/2011 J1 20,155,000 km × 0.296 × 162.8° -580.7 d 4 km:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard, 2011
S/2003 J3 20,230,000 km × 0.2027 × 147.772° -583.87 d 4 km:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2003
Group Ananke (R)
S/2010 J2 20,307,000 km × 0.307 × 150.4° -588.1 d 4 km:
Discovery C. Veillet, 2010
Group Ananke (R)
S/2003 J18 20,494,000 km × 0.1016 × 146.007° -598.11 d 4 km:
Discovery B. Gladman et al., 2003
Group Ananke (R)
S/2003 J16 20,948,000 km × 0.2309 × 148.631° -616.33 d 4 km:
Discovery B. Gladman et al., 2003
Group Ananke (R)
XL Mneme 21,036,000 km × 0.2271 × 148.630° -620.06 d 2 km:
Alt. Name S/2003 J21
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery B. Gladman, 2003
Group Ananke (R)
XXXIII Euanthe 21,038,000 km × 0.2308 × 148.998° -620.44 d 3 km:
Alt. Name S/2001 J7
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2001
Group Ananke (R)
XLV Helike 21,064,000 km × 0.1467 × 154.621° -626.32 d 4 km:
Alt. Name S/2003 J6
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard, 2003
Group Pasiphae (R)
XXII Harpalyke 21,104,000 km × 0.2261 × 148.648° -623.32 d 3 km:
Alt. Name S/2000 J5
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2000
Group Ananke (R)
XXVII Praxidike 21,148,000 km × 0.2302 × 148.985° -625.39 d 5 km:
Alt. Name S/2000 J7
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2000
Group Ananke (R)
XXXV Orthosie 21,164,000 km × 0.2780 × 145.937° -622.55 d 2 km:
Alt. Name S/2001 J9
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2001
Group Ananke (R)
XLII Thelxinoe 21,165,000 km × 0.2194 × 151.335° -628.10 d 2 km:
Alt. Name S/2003 J22
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard, 2003
Group Ananke (R)
XXIX Thyone 21,192,000 km × 0.2377 × 148.819° -627.19 d 3 km:
Alt. Name S/2001 J2
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2001
Group Ananke (R)
XXIV Iocaste 21,272,000 km × 0.2151 × 149.436° -631.60 d 4 km:
Alt. Name S/2000 J3
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2000
Group Ananke (R)
XII Ananke 21,276,000 km × 0.2435 × 148.889° -629.77 d 20 km:
Mass 3×10 16 kg
Grav. 0.001 g
Temp. ~124 K
Dens. 2.6: g/cm 3
Rot. Period 0.35 undefined
Axial Tilt 4.891°
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.B. Nicholson, 1951
Group Ananke (R)
XXX Hermippe 21,300,000 km × 0.2123 × 150.887° -633.90 d 4 km:
Alt. Name S/2001 J3
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2001
Group Ananke (R)
S/2003 J15 22,622,000 km × 0.1868 × 146.405° -689.77 d 4 km:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2003
Group Ananke (R)
S/2003 J10 23,042,000 km × 0.4284 × 165.224° -716.28 d 4 km:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2003
Group Carme (R)
XXXVIII Pasithee 23,090,000 km × 0.2668 × 165.033° -719.46 d 2 km:
Alt. Name S/2001 J6
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2001
Group Carme (R)
XXXII Eurydome 23,148,000 km × 0.2758 × 150.206° -717.34 d 3 km:
Alt. Name S/2001 J4
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2001
Group Pasiphae (R)
XXI Chaldene 23,179,000 km × 0.2514 × 165.171° -723.72 d 3 km:
Alt. Name S/2000 J10
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2000
Group Carme (R)
XXVI Isonoe 23,231,000 km × 0.2465 × 165.252° -726.23 d 3 km:
Alt. Name S/2000 J6
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2000
Group Carme (R)
XLIV Kallichore 23,273,000 km × 0.2424 × 165.121° -728.28 d 2 km:
Alt. Name S/2003 J11
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard, 2003
Group Carme (R)
XXV Erinome 23,283,000 km × 0.2656 × 164.921° -728.46 d 3 km:
Alt. Name S/2000 J4
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2000
Group Carme (R)
XXXVII Kale 23,302,000 km × 0.2521 × 165.072° -729.55 d 2 km:
Alt. Name S/2001 J8
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2001
Group Carme (R)
S/2010 J1 23,314,000 km × 0.324 × 163.2° -723.2 d 4 km:
Discovery R. Jacobson et al., 2010
Group Pasiphae (R)
XXXI Aitne 23,315,000 km × 0.2655 × 165.058° -730.10 d 3 km:
Alt. Name S/2001 J11
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2001
Group Carme (R)
XLVII Eukelade 23,322,000 km × 0.2670 × 165.246° -730.32 d 4 km:
Alt. Name S/2003 J1
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard, 2003
Group Carme (R)
S/2011 J2 23,330,000 km × 0.387 × 151.9° -726.8 d 4 km:
Rot. Period Sync.
Discovery S.S. Sheppard, 2011
Group Pasiphae (R)
XLIII Arche 23,355,000 km × 0.2555 × 164.937° -731.90 d 3 km:
Alt. Name S/2002-05-06 J1
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard, 2003
Group Carme (R)
XX Taygete 23,363,000 km × 0.2518 × 165.241° -732.41 d 4 km:
Alt. Name S/2000 J9
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2000
Group Carme (R)
S/2003 J9 23,385,000 km × 0.2641 × 165.155° -733.31 d 2 km:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2003
Group Carme (R)
XI Carme 23,404,000 km × 0.25 × 164.91° -702.28 d 46 km
Mass 1.3×10 17 kg
Grav. 0.0017 g
Temp. ~124 K
Dens. 2.6: g/cm 3
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.B. Nicholson, 1938
Group Carme (R)
L Herse 23,405,000 km × 0.2493 × 164.815° -734.55 d 2 km:
Alt. Name S/2003 J17
Discovery B. Gladman et al., 2003
Group Carme (R)
S/2003 J5 23,493,000 km × 0.2459 × 165.278° -738.75 d 8 km:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2003
Group Carme (R)
S/2003 J19 23,532,000 km × 0.2620 × 165.174° -740.39 d 4 km:
Discovery B. Gladman et al., 2003
Group Carme (R)
S/2003 J23 23,549,000 km × 0.2702 × 146.267° -732.47 d 4 km:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2003
Group Pasiphae (R)
XXIII Kalyke 23,564,000 km × 0.2464 × 165.181° -742.06 d 4 km:
Alt. Name S/2000 J2
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2000
Group Carme (R)
XXXIX Hegemone 23,566,000 km × 0.3439 × 153.977° -739.85 d 3 km:
Alt. Name S/2003 J8
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard, 2003
Group Pasiphae (R)
VIII Pasiphae 23,624,000 km × 0.4090 × 151.431° -743.63 d 36 km:
Mass 2.996×10 17 kg
Temp. ~124 K
Axial Tilt 3.835°
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery P.J. Melotte, 1908
Group Pasiphae (R)
XLVIII Cyllene 23,787,000 km × 0.4175 × 150.202° -752.01 d 2 km:
Alt. Name S/2003 J13
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard, 2003
Group Pasiphae (R)
XXXVI Sponde 23,790,000 km × 0.3132 × 151.153° -748.31 d 2 km:
Alt. Name S/2001 J5
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2001
Group Pasiphae (R)
XIX Megaclite 23,808,000 km × 0.4211 × 152.845° -752.86 d 4 km:
Alt. Name S/2000 J8
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2000
Group Pasiphae (R)
S/2003 J4 23,928,000 km × 0.3558 × 149.316° -755.22 d 4 km:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2003
Group Pasiphae (R)
IX Sinope 23,939,000 km × 0.2495 × 158.109° -758.90 d 28 km:
Mass 7.489×10 16 kg
Temp. ~124 K
Rot. Period 0.548 d
Axial Tilt 3.211°
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.B. Nicholson, 1914
Group Pasiphae (R)
XLI Aoede 23,969,000 km × 0.4324 × 158.253° -761.41 d 4 km:
Alt. Name S/2003 J7
Albedo 0.04:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard, 2003
Group Pasiphae (R)
XXVIII Autonoe 24,033,000 km × 0.3166 × 152.284° -761.00 d 3 km:
Alt. Name S/2001 J1
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2001
Group Pasiphae (R)
XVII Callirrhoe 24,102,000 km × 0.2829 × 147.155° 758.77 d 7 km:
Alt. Name S/1999 J1
Temp. ~124 K
Albedo 0.06:
Discovery J.V. Scotti et al., 1999
Group Pasiphae (R)
XLIX Kore 24,486,000 km × 0.3315 × 145.043° -776.60 d 2 km:
Alt. Name S/2003 J14
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2003
Group Pasiphae (R)
S/2003 J2 28,332,000 km × 0.4114 × 157.106° -979.33 d 4 km:
Discovery S.S. Sheppard et al., 2003

Jupiter Rings

Name Inner Rad. Width Thickness Opt. Depth
Halo Ring (1979 J1R) 92,000 km 30,500 km 12,500 km 3×10 -6:
Composition Dust: 100%
Discovery Voyager, 1979
Main Ring (1979 J2R) 122,600 km 6,500 km 30…300 km 5.9×10 -6
Mass 1×10 13 kg
Composition Dust: ~25%
Albedo 0.015
S. Dens. 5×10 -6 g/cm 2
Discovery Voyager, 1979
Assoc. Moons Metis, Adrastea
Amalthea Gossamer Ring (1979 J3R) 129,000 km 53,000 km 2,600 km 1×10 -7:
Mass 1×10 7…1×10 9 kg
Composition Dust: ~100%
Discovery Voyager, 1979
Assoc. Moons Amalthea
Thebe Gossamer Ring (1979 J3R) 129,000 km 93,000 km 8,800 km 1×10-7:
Mass 1×10 7…1×10 9 kg
Composition Dust: ~100%
Discovery Voyager, 1979
Assoc. Moons Thebe
Thebe Extension Ring 222,000 km 58,000 km 8,800 km 1×10 -8:
Composition Dust: ~100%
Assoc. Moons Thebe